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中考語(yǔ)法句型十、其他句型

所屬教程:初中英語(yǔ)語(yǔ)法大全

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2022年03月14日

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十、其他句型

1.祈使句句型

祈使句是表示請求、命令、勸告、祝愿或建議的句子。祈使句通常以動(dòng)詞原形開(kāi)頭;祈使句的否定式在動(dòng)詞原形前加Don't;祈使句的反意疑問(wèn)句,除Let's開(kāi)頭的用shall we外,其他的祈使句的反意疑問(wèn)句都用will you構成反意疑問(wèn)句。

Go and ask the teacher.去問(wèn)問(wèn)老師。

Come earlier next time.下次早點(diǎn)來(lái)。

Have a good time.愿你玩得開(kāi)心。

Let's go and help her.咱們過(guò)去幫助她吧。

Don't speak so loud.別這么大聲說(shuō)話(huà)。

Don't walk on the grass.不要在草坪上走。

Turn on the TV,will you?把電視打開(kāi),好嗎?

Tell me the truth,will you?告訴我實(shí)話(huà),好嗎?

Let's go swimming together,shall we?我們一起去游泳好嗎?

Let's all sit under this tree,shall we?咱們都坐在這棵樹(shù)下,好不好?

2.動(dòng)詞不定式作主語(yǔ)句型

①動(dòng)詞不定式作主語(yǔ),常常用it作形式主語(yǔ),放在句子開(kāi)頭,而真正主語(yǔ)動(dòng)詞不定式短語(yǔ)放在句末,漢語(yǔ)翻譯時(shí)仍把動(dòng)詞不定式翻譯在前,it無(wú)實(shí)際意義故無(wú)需翻譯。

It is necessary to study hard.

to study hard is necessary.努力學(xué)習是有必要的。

It is a good habit to get up early.

to get up early is a good habit.早起床是一個(gè)好習慣。

It's my duty to help you improve English.幫助你們提高英語(yǔ)水平是我的職責。

to help you improve English is my duty.

②不定式作主語(yǔ),謂語(yǔ)動(dòng)詞用第三人稱(chēng)單數形式。如:

To learn English well is not easy.學(xué)好英語(yǔ)是不容易的。

To see is to believe.百聞不如一見(jiàn)。

To get up early is necessary.早起是必要的。

3.It seems that ...句型

It seems that ...意為“看起來(lái)好像……;似乎……”。該句型通常有兩種時(shí)態(tài)形式,即一般現在時(shí)態(tài)形式It seems that ...和一般過(guò)去時(shí)態(tài)形式It seemed that ...。It seems that ...,that后從句的時(shí)態(tài)通常為現在時(shí)態(tài),包括一般現在時(shí)、一般將來(lái)時(shí)、現在進(jìn)行時(shí)和現在完成時(shí);It seemed that ...,that后從句的時(shí)態(tài)通常為過(guò)去時(shí)態(tài),包括一般過(guò)去時(shí)、過(guò)去進(jìn)行時(shí)、過(guò)去將來(lái)時(shí)和過(guò)去完成時(shí)。這兩種結構形式在時(shí)態(tài)上要統一。

It seems that he likes his new job.他看起來(lái)很喜歡他的新工作。

It seems that no one knows what has happened in the park.

看起來(lái)好像沒(méi)有人知道在公園里發(fā)生了什么事。

It seemed that the birds were going to win.看起來(lái)好像鳥(niǎo)兒們要獲勝。

It seemed that no one knew what had happened.似乎無(wú)人知道發(fā)生了什么事。

4.had better句型

had better后用動(dòng)詞原形,意為“最好干某事”;had better的否定式在had better后直接加not,had better not do sth.意為“最好不要干某事”。had better中的had可以和前面的代詞縮寫(xiě)為“-d”形式。

You'd better go and ask your teacher.你最好去問(wèn)問(wèn)你的老師。

You'd better practice English in the morning every day.你最好每天早上練習英語(yǔ)。

He'd better write a letter to the teacher.他最好給老師寫(xiě)封信。

You'd better not spend more time on this kind of game.

你最好不要在這種游戲上花更多的時(shí)間。

We had better not go there.我們最好不要去那里。

You'd better not smoke in the sitting room.你最好不要在客廳吸煙。

5.I don't think that ...句型

I don't think that ...是一個(gè)常見(jiàn)的否定轉移句型,意為“我認為……不”。

①在I think+that從句結構中,其否定形式在主句,而漢語(yǔ)翻譯在從句,這種情況被稱(chēng)為否定轉移。如:

I don't think they will work out the math problem.我認為他們算不出那道數學(xué)題。

I don't think he is a teacher.我認為他不是個(gè)老師。

I don't think that they will give up the chance of being volunteers.

我認為他們不會(huì )放棄這次做志愿者的機會(huì )。

I don't think that he is reading now.我認為他現在不是在看書(shū)。

②在含有I think (believe,suppose ...)that ...結構的句子中,其反意疑問(wèn)句的肯定與否定形式看主句,反意疑問(wèn)部分的主謂形式,須與從句的主語(yǔ)、謂語(yǔ)保持一致。如:

I don't think he will come,will he?我認為他不會(huì )來(lái),對嗎?

I don't think he got up very early that morning,did he?

我認為那天早上他起床不是很早,是嗎?

6.It takes sb.some time to do sth.句型

It takes sb.some time to do sth.意為“干某事需要某人多長(cháng)時(shí)間”。

It will take the workers two years to build the bridge.建造那座橋需要工人們花兩年的時(shí)間。

It took her 3 months to do this experiment.做這個(gè)實(shí)驗花了她三個(gè)月的時(shí)間。

注意:

take,spend,cost都表示“花費”時(shí)間或金錢(qián)。

●spend表示“花費”時(shí),賓語(yǔ)通常是時(shí)間、金錢(qián)等,句子的主語(yǔ)必須是人,常用的句型有spend ...on和spend ...(in)doing。如:

She spends a lot of money on books.她花很多錢(qián)買(mǎi)書(shū)。

She spent the whole evening (in)reading.她花了整個(gè)晚上的時(shí)間來(lái)讀書(shū)。

●cost表示“花費”時(shí)既可以指花費時(shí)間,也可以指花費金錢(qián),句子的主語(yǔ)通常是物或事,只有主動(dòng)式,沒(méi)有被動(dòng)式。如:

The pen cost me ten yuan.這只鋼筆花了我十元錢(qián)。

The job cost a lot of time.那項工作花了很多的時(shí)間。

●take常常用來(lái)花費時(shí)間,句子的主語(yǔ)常常是it作形式主語(yǔ)放在句首,真正主語(yǔ)動(dòng)詞不定式放在句末。如:

It took 100,000 men twenty years to build the Great Pyramid.

建造這座大金字塔花了十萬(wàn)人二十年的時(shí)間。

It takes me three hours to go there.去那兒我需要三個(gè)小時(shí)。

7.It's time for sb.to do sth.句型

It's time for sb.to do sth.意為“某人該干某事了;是某人干某事的時(shí)間了”

It's time句型有三種形式:

①I(mǎi)t's time to do sth.該干某事了;是干某事的時(shí)間了。如:

It's time to have supper.該吃晚飯了(是吃晚飯的時(shí)間了)。

②It's time for sth.該做某事了;是做某事的時(shí)間了。如:

It's time for school.該上學(xué)了(是上學(xué)的時(shí)間了)。

③It's time for sb.to do sth.某人該干某事了;是某人干某事的時(shí)間了。如:

It's time for us to go home.我們該回家了(是我們回家的時(shí)間了)。

It's time for us to borrow books from the library.是我們從圖書(shū)館借書(shū)的時(shí)間了。

It's time for Tom to take medicine.湯姆該吃藥了。

8.too ...to ...句型

too ...to ...意為“太……而不能……”。其中too是副詞,后跟形容詞或副詞;to是動(dòng)詞不定式符號,后跟動(dòng)詞原形。

The box is too heavy for me to move.那箱子太重,我搬不動(dòng)。

The boy is too young to go to school.這男孩年齡太小,不能上學(xué)。

The hat is too large to wear.這帽子太大,沒(méi)法戴。

He walks too slowly to get there on time.他走得太慢,不能按時(shí)到達那兒。

注意:

too ...to結構中有時(shí)加上一個(gè)for sb./sth.,以提示動(dòng)詞不定式的邏輯主語(yǔ),在這個(gè)句型中,句子主語(yǔ)和不定式的賓語(yǔ)是指同一個(gè)事物,則賓語(yǔ)不能重復,必須省掉。如:

這個(gè)箱子太重,我搬不動(dòng)。

誤:This box is too heavy for me to carry it.

正:This box is too heavy for me to carry.

這輛小汽車(chē)太貴,他買(mǎi)不起。

誤:The car is too expensive for him to buy it.

正:The car is too expensive for him to buy.

9.used to句型

used to意為“過(guò)去常常干某事”,指過(guò)去經(jīng)常性的動(dòng)作或存在的狀態(tài),現在已不再那樣,側重與現在的比較;to后用動(dòng)詞原形。used to be意為“過(guò)去常常是(存在)……”;used to do意為“過(guò)去常常干某事”。

She used to spend a lot of time playing computer games.

她過(guò)去常?;ù罅康臅r(shí)間玩電腦游戲。

There used to be a hospital here.過(guò)去這里有一家醫院。

The woman used to help the others in troubles.那婦女過(guò)去常常幫助有困難的人。

He used to play basketball after school.他過(guò)去放學(xué)后常常打籃球。

10.be used to句型

be used to意為“已習慣于干某事”,指某動(dòng)作過(guò)去不常做而現在已習慣做了,強調目前的情況。to后接名詞或動(dòng)名詞。如:

The teacher is used to going to bed late in the evening.老師已習慣于晚上晚睡覺(jué)。

I am used to getting up early.我已經(jīng)習慣于早起床了。

They are used to living in China.他們已習慣于住在中國了。

11.So I do句型

So I do結構主要用于加強語(yǔ)氣,意為“的確如此、確實(shí)如此”,表示后者贊同前者的話(huà)或意見(jiàn),只是進(jìn)一步強調并重復前句所述的內容。前后句的主語(yǔ)指的是同一個(gè)人或物。該結構中的助動(dòng)詞do根據上句的情況也可換成is,am,are,was,were,does,did,can,could等。注意,這里不用倒裝語(yǔ)序。如:

— He has done a good job.他干得不錯。

— So he has.他的確干得不錯。

— He will speak at the meeting tomorrow.他明天將在會(huì )上發(fā)言。

— So he will.確實(shí)如此。

— He went to see his friend yesterday.他昨天去看朋友了。

— So he did.的確如此。

— John smokes a lot.約翰吸煙吸得很厲害。

— So he does.他確實(shí)是這樣。

12.“have+名詞+過(guò)去分詞”句型

“have+名詞(或代詞)+過(guò)去分詞”是一個(gè)常用句型,意為“請人干某事,讓人干某事”。所表示的動(dòng)作通常由別人來(lái)完成,但又沒(méi)有說(shuō)出具體的人。

Your mobile phone doesn't work.You'd better have it repaired.

你的手機壞了,你最好請人修一下。

I have my hair cut once a month.我一個(gè)月請人理一次發(fā)。

They had their desks repaired.他們請人修理了課桌。

13.much too與too much句型

much too意為“太……”,其后跟形容詞或副詞;too much意為“太多”,其后跟不可數名詞。

These shoes are much too small for me.這鞋我穿太小了。

He does his work much too carefully.他工作太過(guò)謹慎。

I'm sorry I have to go now.I've got too much (=too much work)to do at home.

真抱歉,我得走了。我家里要干的事太多。

注意:

too many表示“太多”時(shí),其后跟可數名詞復數。

There were too many people and too much noise in the hall that I could not hear you.大廳里人太多,太喧嘩,我聽(tīng)不見(jiàn)你的話(huà)。

【中考速遞】

1.[江蘇南京中考考題] — Excuse me,but can you tell me where the nearest bank is?

— Just _____ going for two more blocks and you'll see it.

A.keep B.to keep C.keeping D.keeps

2.[湖南永州中考考題] David,_____ make trouble at school.

A.can't B.don't C.doesn't

3.[湖南益陽(yáng)中考考題] It's necessary for you _____ the classroom clean,class.

A.keep B.keeping C.to keep

4.[四川樂(lè )山中考考題] You'd better _____ too much chocolate,or you'll get fat fast.

A.not to eat B.not eat C.not eating

5.[廣東汕尾中考考題] I don't think the newly directed film by Zhao Wei is as interesting as people say,_____?

A.do I B.don't I C.is it D.isn't it

6.[湖北黃石中考考題] Mount Xiaolei is not far away from here,but it will still take us a few hours _____ there by bike.

A.getting B.to getCgot D.get

7.[黑龍江齊齊哈爾中考考題] She is _____ poor _____ afford the expensive suit.

A.so,that B.enough,to C.too,to

8.[江蘇泰州中考考題] Diana used to _____ to work,but now she is used to _____ because the road is crowded and she wants to keep fit.

A.drive;walking B.drive;walk

C.driving;walk D.driving;walking

9.[山東泰安中考考題] — Tai'an is a really comfortable city to live in.

— _____,and it's world-famous for Mount Tai.

A.So it is B.So is it C.So it does D.So does it

10.[四川內江中考考題] Bad Luck.The film star had her leg _____ while playing a part in the film.

A.to break B.breaking C.break D.broken

【答案點(diǎn)撥】

1.答案:A 句意:“打擾了,你能告訴我最近的銀行在哪里嗎?”“繼續走兩個(gè)街區,你就會(huì )看到它。”由句意可知這里是一個(gè)祈使句,祈使句以動(dòng)詞的原形開(kāi)頭,故選A。

2.答案:B 句意:大衛,不要在學(xué)校惹麻煩。由句意可知這是一個(gè)否定的祈使句,祈使句的否定形式是在祈使句前加don't,故選B。

3.答案:C 句意:同學(xué)們,對你們來(lái)說(shuō)保持教室的整潔是很有必要的。由句意可知這里考查動(dòng)詞不定式作主語(yǔ),用it作形式主語(yǔ),真正主語(yǔ)動(dòng)詞不定式短語(yǔ)放在后面,故選C。

4.答案:B 句意為:你最好不要吃巧克力,否則你會(huì )很快變胖。had better后用動(dòng)詞原形,否定式為had better not+動(dòng)詞原形,故選B。

5.答案:C 句意:“我認為由趙薇導演的新電影并沒(méi)有跟人們說(shuō)的一樣有趣,是不是?”主句謂語(yǔ)為think的賓語(yǔ)從句,其反意疑問(wèn)句的肯定與否定要根據主句而定,主句否定式,反意疑問(wèn)句部分要用肯定式;反意疑問(wèn)句的助動(dòng)詞及代詞主語(yǔ)要根據從句的主語(yǔ)和謂語(yǔ)而定,從句主語(yǔ)film表示物用it,謂語(yǔ)為is,故選C。

6.答案:B 句意:小雷山離這兒不遠,可是騎自行車(chē)到那兒仍然要花費我們幾個(gè)小時(shí)。這里考查句型It takes sb.some time to do sth.(做某事花費某人多長(cháng)時(shí)間),it作形式主語(yǔ),后面的動(dòng)詞不定式作真正的主語(yǔ),故選B。

7.答案:C 句意:她太窮而買(mǎi)不起這套昂貴的西服。由句意可知這里考查表示“太……而不能……”的too ...to ...句型,故選C。

8.答案:A 句意:黛安娜過(guò)去常開(kāi)車(chē)上班,但現在她習慣步行了,因為道路很擁擠,她也想保持身體健康。used to表示“過(guò)去常常”,后跟動(dòng)詞原形;be used to后跟動(dòng)名詞,表示“已習慣做某事。”故選A。

9.答案:A 句意:“泰安確實(shí)是一個(gè)宜居的舒適城市。”“的確如此,它以泰山而聞名世界。”表示“確實(shí)如此”用so it is句型,故選A。

10.答案:D 句意:真不幸!這個(gè)電影明星在演這部電影時(shí)弄斷了腿。這里考查“have+名詞+過(guò)去分詞”句型,故選D。


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