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2021年12月大學(xué)英語(yǔ)四級閱讀真題以及答案(一)

所屬教程:英語(yǔ)四級閱讀

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2024年06月28日

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英語(yǔ)四級閱讀,作為大學(xué)英語(yǔ)能力的重要評估指標,不僅檢驗了學(xué)生對詞匯、語(yǔ)法的掌握,更考察了其閱讀理解和信息篩選的能力。在全球化背景下,提升這一能力對于拓寬視野、增進(jìn)跨文化交流至關(guān)重要。今天,小編將分享2021年12月大學(xué)英語(yǔ)四級閱讀真題以及答案(卷一),希望能為大家提供幫助!

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Section A

Directions: In this section,there is a passage with ten blanks.You are required to select one word foreach blank froma list of choicesgiven ina word bank following the passage.Read the passage through carefiully before making your choices,Each choice in thebank is identified by a letter.Please mark the correspondingletter for each itemon Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.You may not use any ofthe words inthe bank more than once.

Questions 26 to 35 are based on the following passage.

Many people believe that passion and commitment are the foundations of strong romantic relationships.But a relationship is made of two  26  individuals.And the personality traits( 特性)these individuals  27  or lack can often make a relationship more-orless-likely to  28  .Recent research has found that one trait in particular humiliy(謙遜) is an important indicator of successful relationships.

Humility can sometimes be  29  with a lack of confidence.But researchers have come to realize that being humble generally indicates the  30  of deeply admirable  personal qualities.Being humble means you have the ability to accurately  31  your deficiencies without denying your skills and strengths.For example,you might recognize that you are intelligent,but realizethat youare nota  32  .Thus,humility leads to an honest view of one's own advantages and shortcomings.Humble people do not ignore, avoid,or try to deny their limits or deficiencies.Theycan  33  mistakes,see value in things that are farfrom perfect and identify areas for improvement.

Perhaps it is not  34  ,then,that humility appearstobe a huge asset to relationships One study found that people tend to rate this quality  35  in their spouse.The study also found that someone who is humble is more likely to initiate a romantic relationship, perhaps because they are less likely to see themselves as too good”for someone else.Thus, a humblepartner might beyour ideal partner.

A)acknowledge    F)genius     K)puzzled

B)assess       G)highly     L)status

C)confused      H)permanent   M)surprising

D)endure       I)possess    N)thoroughly

E)extremely     J)presence    O)unique

答案解析

26.O)【語(yǔ)義判斷】空格所在句意為:但一段關(guān)系是由兩個(gè)______個(gè)體組成的。而下一句是關(guān)于這些個(gè)體的個(gè)性特征,由此可知,本句表達的是一段關(guān)系由兩個(gè)不同的個(gè)體組成,因此本空應填入含有“不同的,獨特的”意義的形容詞,由此確定本題答案為O)unique 。

27.I)【語(yǔ)義判斷】or意為“或者”,表示選擇關(guān)系,且后面出現了more orless這組意義相反的詞,所以此處的動(dòng)詞應該與 lack“缺乏”意思相反,故本空應填入含有“擁有”意義的動(dòng)詞,由此確定本題答案為I)possess。

28.D)【語(yǔ)義判斷】空格所在句意為:這些個(gè)體擁有或缺乏的個(gè)性特征通??梢宰屢欢侮P(guān)系更可能或更不可能_______。綜合前一句可知,一段關(guān)系包括兩個(gè)不同的個(gè)體,他們各自的個(gè)性特征會(huì )影響他們的關(guān)系,結合備選動(dòng)詞可知,本空填入含有“持續,持久”意義的動(dòng)詞更合適,由此確定答案為D)endure。

29.C)【語(yǔ)義判斷】空格所在句的意思是:謙遜有時(shí)會(huì )被缺乏自信。由常識可知,如果一個(gè)人太謙虛,可能會(huì )被誤認為是缺乏自信。因此本空應填入含有“混淆,誤認為”意義的詞,由此確定答案為C)confused.K)puzzled與confused意思相近,但不能與with搭配使用,因此排除。

30.J)【語(yǔ)義判斷】空格所在句意為:研究人員已經(jīng)意識到,謙虛通常標志著(zhù)非常令人欽佩的個(gè)人品質(zhì)的______。將備選項中的三個(gè)名詞分別代入空格,只有J)presence“存在”符合句意,因此為正確答案。

31.B)【語(yǔ)義判斷】空格所在句意為:謙遜意味著(zhù)你有能 力準確地______自己的不足,同時(shí)也不否認自己的技能和優(yōu)勢。此處應選擇一個(gè)能與副詞 accurately 以及后面賓語(yǔ) deficiencies搭配的動(dòng)詞。綜合備選項可知,B)assess 與deficiences搭配,意為“評估不足”,符合句意,為本題答案。

32.F)【語(yǔ)義判斷】空格所在句意為:你可能意識到自己很聰明,但也明白自己不是一個(gè)______。備選項中有三個(gè)名詞,其中符合句意的只有F)genius“天才”,故為本題答案。

33.A)【語(yǔ)義判斷】空格所在句意為:他們能夠錯誤,發(fā)現那些遠稱(chēng)不上完美的事物的價(jià)值,并找出需要改進(jìn)的地方。由上一句可知,謙遜的人不會(huì )忽視、避免或試圖否認自己的局限或不足。那么這里表示的意思應為能夠承認錯誤,從而改進(jìn)。 因此確定答案為A)acknowledge“承認”。

34.M)【語(yǔ)義判斷】空格所在句意為:謙遜似乎是人際關(guān) 系中的一筆巨大財富,這也許并不______。由 第二段可知,謙遜是一個(gè)非常好的性格特點(diǎn),那么謙遜對人際關(guān)系很重要,這一點(diǎn)就不足為奇了,因此本空應填入含有“驚奇,驚訝”意義的形容詞,由此確定答案為M)surprising。

35.G)【語(yǔ)義判斷】空格所在句的意思是: 一項研究發(fā)現,人們傾向于_______評價(jià)配偶的這一品質(zhì)。將備選項中的三個(gè)副詞分別代入空格,只有G)highly“非常贊許地”使句意通順,因此確定答案為G)highly。rate highly意為“高評價(jià),評價(jià)很高”。

Section B

Directions: In this section,you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains informationgiven im one of the paragraphs.Identify theparagraph from which the information is derived.You may choose a paragraph more than once.Each paragraph is marked with a letter Answer the questions by marking the correspondng letter on Answer Sheet 2.

There's a stress gapbetween men and women

A)“I used to work very hard.I loveto create things,grow them and  solve problems,“said Meng Li,a successful app developer in San Francisco.“I didn't really care about my mind and my body until they decided to go on strike.”

B)Ms.Li said her stress led to sleeplessness.When she did sleep,she experienced “problem-solving dreams,”which left her feeling unrested when she woke up.“After I became a first-time mother,I quickly realized I was so busy caring for other people and work that I felt likeI'd lost myself,”she said.

C)It's a common story-one we frequently ridicule and readily dismiss,for example, by claiming that women tend to complain more than men,despite the growing sum of research that underlines the problem.Womenare twice as lkely to suffer from severe stress and anxiety as men,according to a 2016 study published in The Journal ofBrain  &Behavior.The American Psychological Association reports a gender gap year after year showing that women  consistently report higher stress levels.Clearly a stress gap exists.

D)“The difference is not really news to me,as a clinical psychologist,”said Erin Joyce, a women and couples therapist in Los Angeles.“It's beenwell documented in extensive research over the years that prevalence rates for the majority of the anxiety disorders are higher in women than men.”Some people may argue that this is merely reported data,and they say many men feel the same pressures as women in terms of fulfilling responsibilities at work and home.In other words,we're all really,really stressed.

E)“The difference,however,is in the nature and scope of these responsibilities in the home environment in   particular,”Dr.Joyce said.For example,the United Nations reported that women do nearly threetimes as much unpaid domestic work as men.The problem is,housework is often overlooked as work,even though it is often as laborious (or in some cases,moreso)as any paid job.As the scholar Silvia Federici put it in 1975, the unpaid nature of domestic work reinforces the assumption that “housework is not work,thus preventing women from struggling against it.”

F)It's not just inside the home,though.Research from Nova Southeastern University found that female managers were more likely than male managers to display “surface acting,”or forcing emotions that are not wholly  felt.“They expressed optimism, calmness and sympathy even when these were not the emotions that they were actually feeling,"the study said.

G)Surface acting is a prime example of “emotional labor,”a concept that the writer Jess Zimmerman made familiar in a 2015 essay.The essay sparked a massive thread on the internet community blog MetaFilter.Hundreds of women spoke up about their own experience with emotionallabor:the duties that are expectedof them,but go unnoticed. Theseinvisible duties become apparent only when you don't do them.Like domestic labor,emotionallabor is generally dismissed and not labeled work.But research shows it can be just as exhausting as paid  work.Emotional labor can lead to difficulty in sleeping and family conflict.Sure,circumstantial stress,like losing a job,may lead to these same issues.But emotional labor is not circumstantial.It's an enduring responsibility based onthe socialized gender role of women.

H)Like Ms.Li,manywomen try to managethe added stress to reach what Dr.Joyce said was an unattainable ideal.“Some professional women aim to do it all.They want to reach the top of the corporate ladder and fly like supermom,”she said When women don't reach this ideal,they feelguilty;and evenmore stressed.After herown  struggle with this,Ms.Li took a step back and used her experience to build Sanity &Self,a self-care app and platfom for overworked women."The realizations I had in that process helped me gain insights and ultimately gotme ready to integrate self-care into my daily life,“she said

I)The stress problem extends beyond mental health when you consider the link between stress,anxiety and heart health.Worse,most of what we know about heart disease comes from studies involving men.However,“there are  many reasons to think that it's different in women,”Harvard Medical School reported.For example,women are more likely toexperience disturbed sleep,anxiety and unusual fatigue before a heart attack.Stress is so normalized that it is easy for women to shrug off those symptoms as simply the consequences of stress.Many women also do not experience chest pain before a heart attack the way men do,which leads to fewer women discovering  problematic heart issues.Harvard reports that women are“much more likely than men to die within a year of having a heart attack”and““many women  say their physicians sometimes don't even recognize the symptoms.”

J)The good news is,women are more likely than men to takecharge of their stress and manage it,the American  Psychological Association reports.The concept of self-care, at itscore,is quite simple.“The basics of adequate sleep,healthy diet and exercise are a good place to start,”Dr.Joyce said.“Support from trusted relationships is vital. This includes professional support from various health and wellness providers if stress is becoming increasingly overwhelming.”

K)Disconnecting from work and home responsibilities is also obviously important.But it's much easier said  than done.It is important to understand what causes your stress in the firstplace.“Get really specific with what's stressing you out,”Ms.Li said. “We often chalk up our stress to broad experiences like work.But work stress can take many  different forms.Is a colleague being disrespectful ofyour time?Is a boss undermining your day-to-day control over decision making?These are different causes o stress and can benefit from different kinds of self-care.”

L)Ideally,your spouse or partner will be supportive,rather than dismissive,of yourstress It is important to talk through these issues before they come to a head.“Women working outside of the home should make an effort to have a conscious conversation with their partners about more equitable sharing of household and family responsibilities,”Dr.Joyce said.

36.Somecareerwomen who aim high tend to feel guilty ifthey fail to achieve their goals.

37.The unpaid housework done by women is triplethat doneby men

38.It is reported that womenconsistently suffer more from severe stress than men.

39.Women are advised to identify the specific causes of their stress so that steps can be taken to deal with it.

40.One study showed that women managers often expressed positive emotions that they didn't really feel.

41.Women tend to mistake signs of heart attacks for symptomsof stress.

42.Fora time an app developer in America was so busy attending to work and family that she suffered from sleeplessness.

43.The emotional labor women do is noticed only when it is not done.

44.Dr.Joyce suggests that apart from self-care,women should seek professional support if they experience severe stress.

45.Some people believe that there may not exist a stress gap between men and women.

答案解析

36.【定位】由題干中的guilty 和 fail to achieve their goabs定位到H)段第四句。

H)【精析】同義轉述題。定位句提到,當女性沒(méi)有達到這個(gè)理想時(shí),她們會(huì )感到內疚;而且甚至壓力更大。題干中的feel  guilty 與定位句中一致,題干中的fail to achieve their goals是對定位句中dont reach this ideal的同義轉述,故答案為H)。

37.【定位】由題干中的unpaid housework和 triple定位到E) 段第二句。

E)【精析】同義轉述題。定位句指出,聯(lián)合國報告稱(chēng), 女性做的無(wú)償家務(wù)勞動(dòng)幾乎是男性的三倍。題干中的The unpaid  housework和triple分別對應定位句中的unpaid domestic work和three times,故答案為E)。

38.【定位】由題干中的women consistently suffer more from severe stress than men定位到C)段第 二、三句。

C)【 精析】細節辨認題。定位句提到,根據2016年發(fā) 表在《大腦與行為雜志》上的一項研究,女性遭受?chē)乐貕毫徒箲]的可能性是男性的兩倍。題干中 的 suffer more from severe stress thanmen對應 定位句中的twice as likely to suffer from severe stress and anxiety as men,題干中的consistently 與定位句中一致,故答案為C)。

39.【定位】由題干中的identify 和 specific causes of their stress定位到K) 段第三、四句。

K)【精析】同義轉述題。定位句指出,首先要了解是什么導致了你的壓力,這是很重要的。弄清楚具體是什么讓你感到壓力。題干中的identify是對定位句中understand的同義轉述,題干中的specific causes of their stress對應定位句中的Get really specific with what's stressing you out,故答案為K)。

40.【定位】由題干中的study,women managers、positive emotions和didnt really fel定位到F)段第二、三句。

F)【精析】細節歸納題。定位句提到,諾瓦東南大學(xué)的研究發(fā)現,女性管理者比男性管理者更有可能表現出“表面行為”,或強迫自己的情緒不被他人完全感知到。研究稱(chēng):“她們表現出樂(lè )觀(guān)、冷靜和同情,即使這些情緒并不是她們實(shí)際感受到的”。題干中的study指的就是定位句中的Research;題干中的women managers對應定位句中的female managers;題干中的positive emotions是對定位句中optimism,calmnessand sympathy的歸納概括;題干中的 didn't really feel對應定位句中的not theemotions thatthey were actually feling。題干是對定位句的總結概括,故答案為F)。

41.【定位】由題干中的 signs  of heart  attacks 和 symptoms of stres定位到D 段第四、五句。

I)【精析】細節辨認題。定位句指出,女性在心臟病 發(fā)作前更有可能經(jīng)歷睡眠不安、焦慮和異常疲勞。 壓力是如此的正?;?,以至于女性很容易將這些 癥狀視為壓力的后果而不予理睬。題干中的 signs of heart attacks和 symptoms of stress分別對應 定位句中的those symptoms和the consequences  of stress,故答案為I)。

42.【定位】由題干中的an app devcloper 、so busy attending to work and family和suffered from sleeplessness定位到B)段第一、三句。

B)【精析】細節歸納題。A) 段中介紹,李夢(mèng)是舊金山 的一位應用軟件開(kāi)發(fā)者。B)段第一句提到,壓力導致李女士失眠。B) 段第三句指出,當她初為人母后,她很快意識到自己忙于照顧其他人和工作,以至于她感覺(jué)好像迷失了自我。題干中的an app   developer對應定位句中的Ms.Li。題干中的so busy attendingto work and family是對定位句中 so busy caring for other people and work的歸納概括。題干中的suffered from sleeplessness對應定位句中的led tosleeplessness,故答案為B)。  A)段雖然提到了李夢(mèng)是應用軟件開(kāi)發(fā)者,但沒(méi)有說(shuō)明她忙于工作和家庭而導致失眠,故可以排除。

43.【定位】由題干中的emotional labor和is noticed only when it is not done定位到G)段第三、四句。 

G)【精析】同義轉述題。定位句指出,數百名女性講 述了她們自己在情緒勞動(dòng)方面的經(jīng)歷:她們被期望承擔的責任,卻沒(méi)有被人們注意到。這些無(wú)形 的責任只有在你不去做的時(shí)候才會(huì )顯現出來(lái)。題 干中的 emotional labor 和 only when it is not  done分別對應定位句中的emotional labor 和 only when youdon't do them;題干中的noticcd是對定位句中apparcnt的同義轉述,故答案為G)。

44.【定位】由題干中的professional support和severe stress定位到J)段最后一句。

J)【精析】同義轉述題。定位句指出,如果壓力變得越來(lái)越大,還要尋求來(lái)自各種健康和保健提供者的專(zhuān)業(yè)支持。題干中的 professional support對應定位句中的 professional support from warious health and wellhess providers;題干中的severe stress是對定位句中stress is becoming increasingly overwhelming的同義轉述,故答案為J)。

45.【定位】由題干中的Some people bedieve和 may not exist a stress gap betwcen men and women 定位到D)段第三句。

D)【精析】細節歸納題。定位句提到,有些人可能會(huì )爭辯說(shuō),這只是報告的數據,他們說(shuō),在履行工作和家庭責任方面,許多男性感受到的壓力與女性相同。題干中的Some people believe對應定位句中的Some people may argue,題干中的may not  exista stress gap between men and women是對定位句中men feel the same pressures as women in terms of fulfilling responsibilities at work and home的總結概括,故答案為D)。

Section C

Directions: There are 2 passages in this section.Each passage is followed bysome questionsor mfinished statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C)and D) You shoulddecide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line throughthe centre.

Passage One

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

As many office workers adapt to remote work,cities may undergo fundamental change if offices remain under-utilized.Who will benefit if working from home becomes the norm?

Employers argue they make considerable savings on real estate when workers shift from office to home work.However,these savings result from passing costs on to workers.

Unless employees are fully compensated,this could become a variant of parasitic (寄生的)capitalism,whereby corporate profits increasingly rely on extracting value from the public—and now personal—realm,ratherthan on generating new value.

Though employers are backed by a chorus of remote work advocates,others note the loneliness,reduced productivity and inefficiencies of extended remote work

If workingfrom home becomes permanent,employees will have to dedicate part of their private space to work.This requires purchasing desks,chairs and office equipment.

It also means having private space dedicated to work:the space must be heated,cleaned,maintained and paid  for.That depends on many things,but for purposes of illustration,I have run some estimates for Montreal.The    exercise is simple but important,since it brings these costs out of the realm of speculation into the realm of meaningful discussion.

Rough calculations show that the savings made by employers when their staff works from home are of similar value to the compensation workers should receive for setting up offices at home.

What does this mean for offices in cities?One oftwo things may happen:Employers pass these costs onto employees.This would be a form of expropriation(侵占),with employees absorbing production costs that have traditionally been paid by the employer.Thisrepresents aconsiderable transfer of value from employeesto employers

When employees are properly compensated,employers'real estate savings will be modest.If savings are modest,then the many advantages of working in offices—such as lively atmosphere,rapidity of communication,team-building and aclimatization (適應環(huán)境)of new employees—will encourage employers to shelve the idea of remote work and,like Yahoo in 2013,encourage employees to work most of the time from corporateoffice space.

46.What does the author say about working from home?

A)Itwillbecome the nom sooneror later.

B)It requires employees to adapt promptly.

C)It benefits employers at the expense of employees

D)It will force cities to transform their infrastructure.

47.Why do some people oppose working from home?

A)It discourages team spirit.                

B)It invadesemployees'privacy. 

C)It undermines traditional values.          

D)It negatively impacts productivity.

48.Why did the authorrun the estimates for Montreal?

A)To provide convincing data for serious discussion.

B)Toillustrate the ongoing change in working patterns.

C)To show the impact of remote working on productivity.

D)To exemplify how remote working affects theeconomy.

49.What can weconclude fom the author's calculations?

A)There is no point in transferringoffice work to working from home

B)Employees can benefit as much from remote workingastheir employers

C)Employers'gain fiom remote working should goto employees as compensation.

D)Effective measures should betaken to motivate employees to set up offices at home

50.What isthe author's opinion on working from home?

A)It should be avoided if possible.

B)It is only a temporary measure.

C)It can reduce companies'real estate costs

D)It may affect employees'corporate loyalty.

答案解析

46.【定位】由題干中的the author和working from home定位到第一、二段。 

C)【精析】細節辨認題。第二段指出,雇主們認為,當工作人員從辦公室轉到家中工作時(shí),他們在房地產(chǎn)方面節省了大量資金。然而,這些節省下來(lái)的資金來(lái)自于將成本轉嫁到工人身上。由此可見(jiàn),遠程工作這一模式雖然使雇主從中受益,但是卻以犧牲雇員的利益為代價(jià),故答案為C)。

47.【定位】由題干中的some people oppose working from home定位到第四段。

D)【精析】推理判斷題。定位段提到,盡管雇主得到了遠程工作倡導者的異口同聲的支持,但其他人注意到長(cháng)期的遠程工作所帶來(lái)的孤獨感、生產(chǎn)率降低和效率低下。由此可知,遠程工作模式并不是受到大家的一致肯定,也有人持反對意見(jiàn),而這些反對意見(jiàn)就包括:孤獨感、生產(chǎn)率降低和效率低下,所以人們反對的原因是認為它會(huì )對生產(chǎn)力產(chǎn)生負面影響,故答案為D) 。

48.【定位】由題干中的 the authorrun the estimates for Montreal定位到第六段最后一句。

A)【精析】細節辨認題。定位句指出,這項工作很簡(jiǎn)單但很重要,因為它將這些成本從推測領(lǐng)域帶到了有意義的討論領(lǐng)域。由此可見(jiàn),作者之所以對蒙特利爾進(jìn)行估算,是為有意義的討論提供真實(shí)的數據,故答案為A)。

49.【定位】由題干中的the author's calculations定位到第七段。

C)【精析】細節辨認題。定位段提到,粗略計算表明,當員工在家工作時(shí),雇主所節省的費用與員工在家設立辦公室所應獲得的補償金額相當。由此可知,雇主所節省下來(lái)的費用應該給予雇員,補償他們設立辦公室的費用,故答案為C)。

50.【定位】由題干中的author's opinionon working from home定位到最后一段。

A)【精析】細節辨認題。定位段指出,如果雇員得到適當的補償,雇主的房地產(chǎn)節省的資金就少了,那么在辦公室工作的許多優(yōu)勢,例如活躍的氣氛、快速的溝通、團隊建設和新員工對環(huán)境的適應,都將鼓勵雇主擱置遠程工作的想法,就像2013年的雅  虎一樣,鼓勵員工大部分時(shí)間在公司辦公。由此可見(jiàn), 一旦雇主需要對遠程工作的員工進(jìn)行補償,那么對于雇主而言,遠程工作的弊端就大于利益,那么遠程工作對于雇主和雇員雙方都沒(méi)有太大的好處。因此,作者支持在辦公室工作,故答案為A)。

Passage Two

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage

The human thirst for knowledge is the driving force behind our successful development as a species.But curiosity can also be dangerous,leading to setbacks or even downfalls.Given curiosity's complexity,scientistshave found ithard to define

While pinning down a definition has proven tricky,the general consensus is it's some  means ofinformation gathering.Psychologists also agree curiosity is intrinsicalby(內在地) motivated.

Curiosity covers such a large set of behaviors that there probably isn't any single “curiosity gene”that  makeshumans wonder aboutandexplore their environment.That said, curiosity does have a genetic component.Genes and the environment interact in many complex ways toshape individuals and guide their behavior,including theircuriosity

Regardless of their genetic makeup,infants have tolearn an incredible amount of information in a short time,and curiosity is one of the tools humans have found to accomplish that gigantic task.

Hundreds of studies show that infants prefer novelty.It's whatmotivates non-human animals,human infants and probably human adults to explore and seek out new things before growing less interested in them aftercontinued exposure.

But curiosity often comes with a cost.

In some situations,the stakes are low and failure is a healthy part of growth.For instance,many babies are  perfectly proficient crawlers,but they decide to try walking because there's more to see and do when they stand upright.But this milestone comes at a small cost.A study of 12-to 19-month-olds learning how to walk documented that these children fell down a lot.Seventeen times per hour,to be exact.But walking is faster than  crawling,so this motivates expertcrawlers to transitionto walking.

Sometimes,however,testingout a new ideacan lead to disaster.For instance,the Inuit people of the Arctic regions have created incredible modes to deal with the challenges of living in northern climates,but what we forget about are the tens of thousands of people that tried and failed to make it inthose challenging landscapes.

51.What does the author say about curiosity?

A)It istoo complex fornon-scientists tounderstand.

B)It is the force that pushes human society forward.

C)It is a unique trait specific to the human race.

D)It is oftenthe majorcause for human failures.

52.What is the general understandingof curiosity?

A)It motivates people to seekinformation.

B)It is destined to transform human genes.

C)It does people more good than harm.

D)It underlies all human behaviors.

53.What do we leamabouthow genes shapepeople's behavior?

A)Theydetermine people's way of thinking.

B)Theyaccount for age differences in learning.

C)They enable people to undertakemassivetasks.

D)They work in conjunction with the environment.

54.What do numerous studies show about infants?

A)They are far more curious than adults.

B)They preferto go after allthatis novel.

C)They have different interests than adults.

D)Theyshow non-human animal behaviors.

55.What does the example of the Inuit people of theArctic regions illustrate? 

A)The costo humans'curiosity to explore.

B)The incredible harshness of cold weather.

C)The innovative ideas stemming from curiosity

D)The importance of learning from past failures.

答案解析

51.【定位】由題干中的the author和curiosity定位到首段第一句。

B)【精析】細節辨認題。定位句指出,人類(lèi)對知識的渴望是我們作為一個(gè)物種成功發(fā)展背后的驅動(dòng)力。由此可見(jiàn),作為一個(gè)物種,我們之所以不斷向前發(fā)展,是因為有好奇心這一驅動(dòng)力,故答案為B)。

52.【定位】由題干中的the general understanding of curiosity定位到第二段第一句

A)【 精析】細節辨認題。定位句提到,雖然事實(shí)證明 給好奇心下定義很難,但大家普遍認為好奇心是 一種收集信息的手段。由此可知,好奇心可以激勵人類(lèi)去尋找信息,故答案為A)。

53.【定位】由題干中的 we learn about how gencs shape people's bchavior定位到第三段第三句。

D)【精析】細節辨認題。定位句指出,基因和環(huán)境以許多復雜的方式相互作用,塑造個(gè)體并指導他們的行為,包括他們的好奇心。由此可見(jiàn),基因之所以可以影響人類(lèi)的行為,是與環(huán)境相互作用的結果,故答案為D)。

54.【定位】由題干中的 numerous studies show about infants 定位到第五段第一句。

B)【精析】細節辨認題。第五段第一句提到,數百項研究表明,嬰兒更喜歡新奇的事物。這是促使非人類(lèi)動(dòng)物、人類(lèi)嬰兒,甚至可能是人類(lèi)成年人探索和尋找新事物的動(dòng)力,而在持續接觸之后,他們對新事物的興趣會(huì )減弱。由此可見(jiàn),嬰兒比成年人更喜歡追求新奇的東西,故答案為B)。

55.【定位】由題干中的 the Inuit people of theArctic regions定位到最后一段。

A)【精析】推理判斷題。最后一段第二句中的For instance說(shuō)明該句是例證,主要說(shuō)明第一句的觀(guān)點(diǎn)。第一句指出,有時(shí)候測試一個(gè)新想法可能會(huì )導致災難。由此可見(jiàn),驅使人類(lèi)不斷進(jìn)行探索的好奇心也會(huì )給人類(lèi)帶來(lái)負面的影響,故答案為A)。


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